Blue Rider Impressionist artists 1911-1914
Blue Rider Impressionist artists
Artistic Association “Blue Rider” – one of the most stellar and rapid, bold and short-lived in the XX century. It existed only 3 years (1911 – 1914). Initially with enthusiastic whisper, and later in a loud voice, talked about the synthesis of all the arts and non-objective paintings. Here talked about the value of the painting of crazy and children, about colors and shapes, self-sufficiency and spiritual content of painting. Meanwhile, it united the unique versatile artists working equally brilliantly with brush and pen. Besides, the best representatives of the “new art” wrote revolutionary almanac “Blue Rider”, and without requiring fees and promotions.
Recalling the three years before the First World War, Kandinsky said: “The Blue Rider” is the two of us, Franz Marc and me.”
First of all, it all started with an almanac – passionate search for links between music, theater and painting. Kandinsky and Marc conceived to mark those links in a new avant-garde magazine. Besides, dreamed to publish it in Munich, Paris and Moscow. With the title, too, everything was simple: “We both loved blue. I – riders, and Mark – Horses”. However, it was Kandinsky, who was literally ill with the idea of synthesis of the great, and “pure” emotional art. And it was him, who wrote the book “On the Spiritual in Art”, as he wanted to pull out Russian splint on a par with academic art. In addition, it was his painting “Improvisation” that shocked Franz Marc at the exhibition “New Munich artists’ association.” Finally, it’s Kandinsky who first in the history of world art has created an abstract painting.
Meanwhile, Franz Marc was the only person in Bavaria, who is understood and accepted the exhibition “New Association of Artists” in 1910. At the same time, when every evening, the author of the painting was cleaning canvas from the spit, young artist Marc from the quiet village wrote a letter to Kandinsky, in which he admired the courage and the strength of the works presented at the exhibition.
Then they did not met, it will happen only a year later. During this time, from 1910 to 1911, Mark has found his way in art, and successfully held his first solo exhibition. Inspired by Kandinsky’s ideas about “synthetic book,” So, Mark became the second chief editor of the almanac and wrote three small essays for it.
According to Kandinsky, “The Blue Rider”- was the two of them, “Franz Marc and I. My friend died, and I alone would not want to do anything”, – said Kandinsky in response to a proposal by one of the German publishers to produce an almanac in the post-war years. “Blue Rider” was killed along with Mark in the terrible battle of Verdun.
Perhaps, there would be no “Blue Rider”, if not for Marianne von Werefkin (Marianna Verevkina, 10 September 1860, Tula, Russia – 6 February 1938, Ascona, Switzerland). A pupil of Repin, Russian heiress, the artist, was not only talented, but also had a sharp analytical mind and artistic and speaker gift. She came to the German town of Murnau with a clear idea of the “pure” emotional art, with her unmistakably bold and even untimely view of Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Munch. Besides, she was discussing with Kandinsky the development of art for long hours, and interpreted the newest and boldest paintings of new artists. In her “Pink Salon” she received directors of German galleries and avant-garde artists, dancers, Russian and German composers. In fact, Verevkina became the most persuasive preacher of the new art for German artists.
August Macke (3 January 1887 – 26 September 1914) did not have time to numerous projects and artistic trends, he lived only 27 years and was killed during the First World War. And all of his short creative biography can be easily divided into “before the Blue Rider” and “Blue Rider”. However, all valuable museum and sold for millions at auction today, Macke created in the era of “Blue Rider”.
The group “Blue Rider” included August Macke, Marianna Verevkina, Alexei Jawlensky, Paul Klee, also in the activities of “Blue Rider” participate Burliuk brothers, G. Munter, Robert Delaunay, not only artists, but also a number of dancers and composers. The Group takes an active part in the movement for the renewal of German art of the early twentieth century.
The first exhibition of the association took place 18 December 1911 in the Munich gallery Tanhauzer.
In March 1912, in the gallery of H. Holtz was the second exposure. It involved also other groups of artists, in particular, the unification of “The Bridge”, suprematists, and Cubists. In addition, in May of the same year, “Blue Rider” publishes Almanac, in which the participants offer their reflections on the history and development of the painting. Illustrated Articles demonstrated a community ancient art in different parts of the world. Besides, the authors paid great attention to the children’s drawing, seeing it as a full-fledged art. And it became quite a revolutionary idea.
Blue Rider Impressionist artists 1911-1914
Great Soviet Encyclopedia, vol. 13. 2nd edition